Citizenship and Residency

Fact File

Jurisdiction Programme Briefs

Click on a jurisdiction for key information on its Citizenship or Residency programme.

Programme Brief Supplied by

Supplied By Citizenship by Investment Unit (CIU)

Type of Programme

Citizenship by Investment

Type of Investment/s

Donation to National Development Fund (NDF), investment in real estate, or business, Investment in University of the West Indies (UWI).

Minimum investment

NDF: US$100,000 (family of 4 or less) or US$125,000 (family of 5 or more). Real estate: US$400,000 or joint investment (minimum US$200,000). Business investment: US$400,000 (group of investors). University of West Indies (UWI): US$150,000.

Dual Nationality Permitted

No restrictions.

Personal Visit Required.

Persons 18 or over must visit Antigua for the purposes of taking the Oath of Allegiance.

Minimum Stay

5 days (total) in first 5 years only.

Capital Gains Taxes

No.

Personal Income Taxes

No (abolished in 2016).

Business & Corporate Taxes

25% of net profits. *Disclaimer: Concessions are available to qualifying companies.

Property Taxes

Yes, based upon the property's current market value with the applicable tax rate dependent upon the classification of the property (residential or commercial).

Documents Required

Medical Certificate (including HIV clearance), Police clearance certificate or certificate of no criminal record, Copy of existing passport(s) and national ID card (if applicable), Marriage certificate, if applying with spouse, Birth certificate, Professional and bank references, Proof of residential address, Proof of source of funds *Disclaimer: Required documents may vary from applicant to applicant.

Application Fees

- NDF: Government Fee: US$25,000 for a family of up to 4 persons with incremental payments of US$15,000 for each additional dependant. Real Estate and Business: Government fee: US$30,000 for a family of up to 4 persons with incremental payments of US$15,000 for each additional dependant.

- Due diligence fee: US$7,500 per person (US$0 – US$4,000 for dependants)

- Passport fee: US$300 per person

Processing Time

60 days.

Passport Validity

10 years *The first passport issued has a five year validity to ensure the applicant meets the 5 day residency requirement but the second and consecutive passports will have a 10 year validity.

Restricted Countries

Afghanistan; Iran; North Korea; Somalia; Yemen; Sudan.

Visa Free Travel

Over 160 countries.

Programme Brief Supplied by

Vardikos & Vardikos.

Type of Programme

Citizenship by Investment. A Residency Programme (18 months Residence Visa) was announced.

Type of investment/s

Government fund option (non-refundable). Real estate option.

Minimum investment

US$100,000 for Government fund option; US$200,000 (minimum) for Real estate option.

Dual Nationality Permitted

Yes. 

Personal Visit required

No.

Minimum Stay

No.

Capital Gains Taxes

No.

Personal Income Taxes

0 – 25,000 – 0%, 25,001 – 45,000 – 15%, 45,001 – 75,000 – 25%, 75,001 and above – 35%. Persons who retire in Dominica are tax exempt on income earned outside Dominica DTT with the United Kingdom, U.S.A. and CARICOM countries.

Business & Corporate Taxes

25%.

Property Taxes

Judicial fee: 2.5%, stamp duty (buyer): 4%, stamp duty (vendor): 2.5%. Solicitor’s fee: 3% of value on which 15% VAT is payable.

Documents required

Six passport size photographs, 35mm x 45mm, full colour, certified on the reverse of four. Application forms for each applicant, investment agreement or purchase agreement, copies of all passports held, copies of birth certificate, copy of national ID document and/or driving license, copy of marriage certificate/dissolution of marriage, letter of employment/audited financial statement/ letter of incorporation for working adults, police record, from country of birth and country of residence (if different) for each applicant sixteen (16) years and over, proof of wealth - assets and liabilities proof, full history of military service with proof, one professional reference (investor only), recommendation from applicant’s bankers or six months bank statements (investor only), proof of address (investor only), affidavit of support for any non spouse dependants between 18 – 25 signed by the investor.

Application Fees

Due diligence fees: The due diligence fees are paid to the government and are non refundable. They are as follows:
• Main applicant – US$7,500
• Spouse – US$4,000
• Other dependants over 16 – US$4,000
• Sponsors of applicants – US$4,000

Government fees (when applicable): The government fees are only applicable in case the real estate option is chosen. They are as follows:
• Main applicant - US$25,000
• Main applicant with spouse - US$35,000
• Family of up to 4 persons irrespective of age - US$35,000
• Family of up to 6 persons irrespective of age - US$50,000
• Family of up to 7 persons irrespective of age - US$70,000

Processing Time

The processing time for the application for a Dominica programme is around 2-3 months since the application is submitted.

Passport Validity

The Dominican passport is valid for 10 years and 5 years for children under 16 years old.

Restricted countries

North Korea, Iran, Sudan. Nationals of the mentioned countries can be eligible if a. they have not lived in the above counties for the past 10 years, b. hold no substantial assets in these countries and c. have no business activities or affiliations in these countries.

Visa free travel

Being a Dominican citizen grants access to over 140 countries (including visa on arrival). Please note however that visa-free travel is subject to change. We strongly recommend that the relevant government authorities and agencies are contacted prior to travelling. www.dominicaconsulate.com

Programme Brief Supplied by

Vardikos & Vardikos.

Type of Programme

Residency by Investment. Non-Dom Programme. Citizenship by Naturalisation is possible after 7 years of Residence. Citizenship by descent (proof of Greek Ancestry is mandatory).

Type of Investment/s

For Golden Visa: Property or Properties in any part of Greece with a minimum total value of €250,000. Bank Instruments (fixed term deposit, bonds, shares, stocks on ASE).

Minimum Investment: Donation

For Golden Visa: Property or Properties in any part of Greece with a minimum total value of €250,000.

Dual Nationality Permitted

Yes, with no restrictions.

Personal Visit Required

Yes at least once for Biometrics. All applications can be filed remotely by proxy.

Minimum Stay

Golden Visa – No Minimum stay. Financially Independent Persons (FIP) Visa – Minimum stay 6 months per calendar year.

Resident-non-dom Scheme

€500,000 investment. Not a previous Tax Resident of Greece. Annual Flat Tax €100,000 for Main Applicant, €20,000 per Dependant. No obligation to declare any foreign income in Greece. DTT of Greece are applicable.

Capital Gains Taxes

No capital gain tax is levied on Real Estate transactions. 15% Capital gain tax on Non listed Share Transfer. Specific conditions apply for shares of Listed Companies (transfer duty 2% on the gross sale).

Personal Income Taxes

Personal Tax Rates First €10k at 9%, next €10k at 22%, next €10k at 28%, next €10k at 36%. Above €40,000 36%.

Business & Corporate taxes

For the Tax Year 2019 onwards the Corporate Income Tax is reduced from 28% to 24%.

Property Tax

Real Estate Transfer Tax Rate 3%. Real Estate Income (Rental Income) First €12,000 at 15%; next €23,000 at 35%; above €35,000 at 45%.

Property Taxes

ENFIA Tax imposed on ownership of Real Estate property/property rights. Property Value is determined on the basis of various factors. Principal Tax Ranging €2-13 per M2. Supplementary Tax on Individuals is imposed at a progressive Tax Rate 0.15%-1.15% (Tax Free Threshold €250,000) on the total value of property rights.

Application Fees

Golden Visa Main Applicants Government Fee €2,000 Dependants €300.

Processing Time

It generally depends on the local Administration, however Fast Track applies to Golden Visa and Non-Dom Applicants.

Passport Validity

5 years.

Restricted countries

No restrictions.

Visa Free Travel

Greek passport offers visa free or visa on arrival access to 184 countries and territories worldwide. Greek Residence permits Free Movement in the EU states. For more information please visit www.vardikos.com

Programme Brief Supplied by

Caiado Guerreiro Law Firm.

Type of Programme

Residency by investment without the need to live in the country. Allows direct access to Portuguese citizenship after 5 years for main applicant and reunified family members (spouse, minor and over age child, parents and parents in law).

Type of Investment/s

Real estate investments from a minimum of €350,000 to €500,000 (after January 2022, geographic restrictions will be implemented regarding habitational real estates only); Creation of 10 job positions; Transfer capital of at least €1,000,000 into a Portuguese financial institution or as share capital of Portuguese company (after January 2022, will raise to €1,500,000); Capital transfer of at least €350,000 for purchasing participation units in investment funds (after January 2022, will raise to €500,000); Investment in research activities €350,000 (after January 2022, will raise to €500,000); Corporate investment through the incorporation or reinforcement of a company and 5 job positions €350,000 (after January 2022, will raise to €500,000). In some cases, minimum investment can be subject to a 20% reduction if located in a low density area.

Minimum Investment

Real estate minimum investment: €280,000.

Dual Nationality Permitted

Yes. Children born in Portugal whose parents hold a residence permit, are Portuguese by birth.

Personal Visit Required

Yes, for the submission of biometric data (unless the passport allows to enter in Portugal for tourism purposes – EUA, Brazil, Taiwan, etc).

Minimum Stay

7 or more days in the first year. 14 days in every period of 2 years.

Capital Gains Taxes

Capital gains realised by non-tax residents on the sale of Portuguese properties are taxed at a flat rate of 28%.

Personal Income Taxes

Golden Visa programme neither Portuguese citizenship grant automatically tax residency status. Non-tax residents are only subject to taxation on their income generated in Portugal and incomes generated outside of Portugal are not subject to taxation. Tax residents of Portugal are subject to taxation on their worldwide incomes and capital gains, benefting from several double tax agreements entered. Portugal does not tax wealth neither on succession (between spouses and first degree family). Portugal has in place a non-habitual tax residents’ programme (NHR) that allows applicants that have not resided, for tax purposes, in Portugal in the last 5 years to apply for tax benefits (in some cases 0% tax rate) regarding personal income (valid for 10 years) if they decide to change their tax residency to the country.

Business & Corporate Taxes

Corporate income tax rate of 21 (5% in the Madeira Island International Business Centre). Withholding tax rates (dividends / interest / royalties): 25%; VAT rate: standard of 23% for mainland, intermediate rate of 13% and reduced rate of 6% apply. VAT Rates in Madeira Island are 22%,12%, 5% and in Azores Island 18%, 10%, 5%.

Property Taxes

When buying property:

1) Real Estate Transfer Tax (IMT) - Maximum 7.5% (paid one time)

2) Stamp Tax - 0.8% (paid one time)

3) Annual Real Estate Tax (IMI) - The rate varies between 0.3% and 0.45% for urban properties and 0.8% for rural properties.

Documents Required

a) Passport with a validity of at least three months; b) Valid Schengen visa, or a short term visa (or just a passport that allows entry into Portugal for tourism); c) Police clearance report; d) Proof of one of the types of investment completed; e) Local tax number.

Application Fees

GOVERNMENT FEES: (Immigration Department)

Analysis fee: €533.00 (for the government to check all the documents and accept application) per person; Card fee: €5,325.00 (to be issued the residence card), per person.

Renewal every 2 years:

Analysis fee: €533.00 (for the government to check all the documents and accept application) per person; Card fee: €2,663.00 (to be issued the residence card), per person Legal Fees: To be quoted.

Processing Time

Minimum 90 days for decision on the residency application (after 5 years of holding the residence card can apply for citizenship).

Passport validity

5 years.

Restricted countries

None.

Visa Free Travel

All Schengen countries with a residence permit and over 188 Countries visa free with passport. 4th Best Passport in the World.

Programme Brief Supplied by

CS Global Partners

Type of Programme

Citizenship by Investment.

Type of Investment/s

Donation to the Sustainable Growth Fund (SGF), or the purchase of approved real estate.

Minimum Investment

SGF:

US$150,000 for a single applicant; US$25,000 for the main applicant’s spouse; US$10,000 for dependants other than the spouse or a sibling; US$20,000 for a sibling

Limited Time Offer for SGF:

US$150,000 for a family of four, excluding siblings

Real estate 5 years resale:

US$400,000 minimum value, purchase on approval in principle, plus:
US$35,000 government fee for the main applicant; US$20,000 government fee for the spouse; US$10,000 government fee for each dependant other than the spouse or a sibling; US$40,000 government fee for a sibling

Real estate 7 years resale:
US$200,000 minimum value, purchase on approval in principle, plus:
US$35,000 government fee for the main applicant; US$20,000 government fee for the spouse; US$10,000 government fee for each dependant other than the spouse or a sibling; US$40,000 government fee for a sibling.

Dual Nationality Permitted

Yes.

Personal Visit Required

No.

Minimum Stay

No residence or minimum stay required.

Capital Gains Taxes

None.

Personal income taxes

None (if not resident).

Business & Corporate Taxes

Income derived from local companies 35%. None on foreign income.

Property Taxes

Stamp duty is payable by the seller on real estate transactions and depends on the market value of the property. Stamp duty can be levied at between 5-18.5%.

Documents Required

Application for Registration (Form C1)

Photograph and Signature Certificate (Form C2)

Medical Certificate (Form C3) (including original results of HIV test no older than 3 months for everyone aged 12 or over)

Investment Confirmation for SGF applications only (Form C4)

Six original passport sized photos taken within the past six months (one of the photos must be certified and attached to Form C2)

Certified and legalised colour copies of: full birth certificate (or original excerpt), current passport(s), current national identity card(s), military records (if applicable), proof of name change (if applicable), degree certificates (if applicable), marriage certificate (or original excerpt of marriage record) or divorce documents (if applicable)

Original police certificate (‘certificate of no criminal record’ or ‘police clearance certificate’) from country of citizenship and any country where the applicant has lived for more than one year over the past 10 years (for everyone aged 16 or over)

Additional Documents for the Main Applicant

Original bank reference letter issued by an internationally recognised bank (no older than six months); limited power of attorney; original professional reference; original document of evidence of residential address; statement and evidence of source of funds to be invested in St Kitts and Nevis, personal bank statements for the preceding twelve months; employment letter (if applicable), and certified and legalised copy of business licence or incorporation documents (if applicable).

An affidavit of financial support is required to be signed by the main applicant where there is a dependant aged between 18-30

Additional Documents required for the Real Estate Option

Original copy of duly executed real estate contract (Purchase and Sale Agreement) and escrow agreement (to be submitted with the application) and evidence of title transfer (to be submitted after applicant receives approval in principle). 

Application Fees

Due diligence fee:

US$7,500 for the main applicant; US$4,000 for a dependant aged 16 or over *DD fees must be paid for all dependants who are 16 years and over.

Application processing fee:

US$250 per applicant; US$47 fee for each Certificate of Registration.

Processing Time

3 months, 60 days if the applicant chooses the premium accelerated application process (AAP).

Passport validity

10 year validity for those who are 16 years or older; 5 year validity for those under 16 years.

Restricted countries

Afghanistan, Iran, North Korea. Citizens of Iraq, Nigeria, and Yemen are excluded from the AAP.

Visa free travel

Visa-free travel to 156 countries and territories.